Sănătate bacteriilor!

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Sănătate bacteriilor!

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Astăzi vă invit la un experiment mental: avem un măr de Voinești și un măr de Voinești de plastic. Aruncăm merele pe fereastra laboratorului imaginar și încheiem activitatea științifică. După două săptămâni, revenim la fereastră: observăm că mărul natural este descompus parțial, iar cel de plastic este intact, plin de rouă și îmbietor (este dimineață).

Ce s-a întâmplat cu mărul de Voinești? S-a biodegradat. Ce nu s-a întâmplat cu mărul de plastic? Nu s-a biodegradat. Faptul este suficient de intrigant pentru a afla mai multe.

Așa vine în mod firesc întrebarea: ce este biodegradarea? Este fenomenul prin care un material este descompus în compuși mai simpli prin acțiunea micro-organismelor, mai ales a ciupercilor și bacteriilor (ele reprezintă „bios” din biodegradare). În urma unei descompuneri eficiente, rămân CO2, apă și oxigen, iar rezultatul final se numește mineralizare( dispariția substanțelor organice). Ceea ce este de proveniență naturală, va fi descompus pe cale naturală, practic orice fiind în meniul bacteriilor și ciupercilor( datorită diversității lor, versatilității catabolice și capacității de a se adapta unei varietăți de condiții de mediu).

Un exemplu de obiecte biodegradabile sunt cele din materiale de origine vegetală ( o frunză, un fruct, o petală, lemn) sau cele de origine animală (o mâna, o coadă, păr). Ele se descompun într-un ritm diferit, în funcție de complexitatea substanțelor din compoziție, ceea ce face diferența între perioada de prosperitate și cea de penurie pentru o populație de micro-organisme. Compușii elementari rezultați sunt folosiți mai departe de plante pentru a obține glucide și nu numai, ele devenind masă pentru erbivore, consumate de carnivore, care, indiferent cât de bine hrănite sunt sau nu, vor ajunge pe masa bacteriilor și ciupercilor.

Dar ce se întâmplă într-o livadă de mere de Voinești de plastic? Ele fiind compuse din substanțe sintetice, după o rețetă nenaturală, rămân neatinse de micro-organisme. Pentru ele meniul este scris într-o limbă străină și nu cunosc metoda de a rupe legăturile între molecule. Rezultatul: fiind lipsită de viață, o livadă de mere de Voinești de plastic este nemuritoare.

Un alt exemplu de obiect biodegradabil: sacoșa de pânză. Nebiodegradabil: punga de plastic.

surse: http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_acc/sec_solvents.asp?CID=1522&DID=5762

http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Enviro-imprints/Science-Ideas-and-Concepts/Biodegradability

http://www.earth-cards.com/pseudomonas_bacteria.htm

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