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Secretele bumbacului

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Secretele bumbacului

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Vi s-a întâmplat vreodată să vă întrebați cum arată bumbacul înainte de a lua bine-cunoscutele forme de haine sau sacoșe? V-ați gândit că ar putea să provină de la o specie pufoasă și exotică de miel, din Asia?

Din lipsa unor cunoștințe botanice, europenii din Evul Mediu credeau că bumbacul provine din „miei vegetali”, crescuți în copaci și exponate false ale acestei „specii” erau chiar și în muzee. În acest post, veți afla încă o dată că bumbacul nu este un produs animal, ci vegetal, și că v-ați fi integrat mai greu cu aceste concepții într-o comunitate din Evul Mediu.

În primul rând, numele plantei a cărei poreclă este „bumbac” este Gossypium.

În lumea plantelor, există 50 de specii de bumbac, dintre care 4 au fost domesticite și ale căror cultivare sunt folosite actual. Global, cele mai folosite sunt Gossypium hirsutum și Gossypium barbadense, iar speciile G. arboreum și G. herbaceum sunt cultivate în Asia de Sud. Tot de-acolo vin și cele mai vechi dovezi ale folosirii bumbacului ca plantă textilă, în Valea Indusului au fost găsite fragmente de bumbac datând din 3000 î.Hr. Poate datorită acestei experiențe, în continuare, țările din Asia, India și Pakistan, sunt cele mai mari producătoare de bumbac.

Gossypium are portul specific plantelor din familia botanică Malvaceae(dacă nu vă trece nimic prin fața ochilor când auziți cuvântul Malvaceae, gândiți-vă la hibiscus sau nalbă)

Bumbacul crește în tufe, înalte între 6-20 m, dar varietățile cultivate sunt mai mici pentru a putea fi manevrate mecanic. Florile sunt de culoare alb-crem, inițial, și devin roz la maturitate. După bine cunoscutele procese de polenizare și fecundație, din flori se vor forma fructele, mici ghemotoace de bumbac imatur, care vor conține, nu miei, ci semințe.

În locul florii, se va dezvolta ghemotocul de bumbac, care reprezintă fibre produse de semințe. Materialul din care sunt făcute este celuloza, o polizaharidă, iar un astfel de ghemotoc poate să conțină până la 500.000 de fibre, în timp ce o plantă poate avea în jur de 100 de ghemotoace(sper că această lipsă de științificitate este scuzabilă prin prisma comunicării mai ușoare).

Ce se întâmplă mai departe poate fi ușor ghicit: bumbacul, setat genetic pentru perpetuarea speciei, ar putea fi îngrijorat de faptul că în procesarea fibrelor, semințele sunt îndepărtate. Dar domesticirea are părțile ei bune: cultivatorii, muncind de zor în aceeași pereche de blugi, vor avea nevoie de haine noi, așa că bumbacul este semănat din nou de la an la an.

Despre mieii vegetali nu avem referințe științifice.

surse:http://www.cottonsjourney.com/Storyofcotton/page3.asp

http://www.kew.org/plant-cultures/plants/cotton_plant_profile.html

http://www.strangescience.net/stplt.htm

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